Linux Filesystem and its structure

What is a Linux Filesystem?

All data in Linux is organized into files. All files are organized into directories and these directories are organized into a tree-like structure called the Linux file system. So, a filesystem is the logical representation of the physical entity. All operating system uses a filesystem-specific driver to read from and/or write to a partition.

The most widely used native filesystem types in Linux are XFS, ext4, ext3, ext2, global file system, NFS, CIFS, SMB and FS-Cache. ext4 is the default file system used in most Linux distributions.

How to Gather a Filesystem Information?

DF command – the df commands allows to displays the system’s disk space usage with various options  (-k, -g, -h,)

#df -h

Linux Filesystem and its structure

In above,

  Filesystem – shows the absolute filesystem path

  Size  –  shows total  filesystem size in GB

 Used – used spaced in GB

 Avail – Available space in GB

 Mounted on – Displays filesystem mount point path

 DU command – The du command allows to displays the amount of space that is being used by files in a directory.


[root@poclinux /]# du -sh *

123M    boot

24K     dev

24M     etc

52K     home

2.1G    mnt

204M    opt

28K     root

9.0M    run

1.2T    webmedia

86M     tmp

1.5G    usr

567M    var





Unix/Linux filesystems acts like  backbone of the operating system data. It’s crucial to understand the fundamental structure of the same for easier administration.

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